Comparison Table of Opposition and Protest

Hi Guys!

So I’ve been doing a lot of Tudors lately but today I decided to do Germany 🙂 Here is a opposition and protest comparison table between Weimar, Nazi and FRG. I hope this helpful.


1. Individuals,

2. groups,

3. parties

1 Did not experience opposition from individuals. 1 Hindenburg

–          Chose Papen as Chancellor over Hitler

–          4 April 1933 – wrote to Hitler about law to dismiss non-Aryan members of civil service.


1 Did not experience opposition from individuals.
2 Spartacists Revolt – Communist inspired attempt to overthrow the government.

Kapp Putsch – Freikorp and military backed revolt in Berlin forcing the Government to flee. Collapsed after TU’s called general strike leaving the leaders powerless.

2 Red Army Faction/Baader-Meinhof Gang a left wing radical group inspired by Communists with the support of East German Stasi.
2 Nazis did not suffer much opposition from groups due to fear.
KPD banned 1956, SRP banned 1952 through Article 21. Left felt unrepresented and marginalised.
3 Nazis suffered very little opposition from political parties after they were banned in 1933.

–          1941 – Red Orchestra – Government officials who passed information to the USSR.

–          SPD “Red Shock Troop” published anti-Nazi literature.

3 Weimar experienced a lot of opposition from political parties such as: (Right-Left)





However, the Parties never actively opposed bar the NSDAP

Munich putsch

–           Munich Putsch attempted a takeover of government inspired by Mussolini’s “March on Rome” but were stopped before they could march.


Spartacists Uprising

Nazis did not experience terrorism as everyone was controlled by fear. Red Army Faction (BMG) – used violent methods such as bombing, assassinations, kidnappings, bank robberies and shoot outs.
REIGIOUS OPPOSITION No religious opposition. Church

–          Concordat was established with the Catholic Church. Created “People’s Church”

–          Removal of Old Testament and the increased level of Nazism, a decrease of Christianity in the “People’s Church” lead to the creation of PEL which condemned Nazis. Members were arrested and some executed.


No religious opposition.
YOUTH PROTEST No Youth protests Edelweiss Pirates and White Rose Group – distributed anti-Nazi materials 1960s:

–          “What did you do in the war daddy?”

–          Popular slogan

–          Dislocate from past due to “Year Zero” policy.

v  APO

v  SDS

Group marches and mass demonstrations.

Good Luck with you studies! Also, let me know this is confusing and I’ll change it 🙂

Best wishes, 

Sapph xx



Agrarian Discontent – Kett’s Rebellion

Hi Guys!

Hope your revision is going well. Exams are soon and your revision should begin soon! Here is a helpful resource to get you started! Kett’s Rebellion.

Best Wishes,

Sapph xx



June-November 1549

East Anglia – although there was wider outbreak across England.

Leadership Robert Kett, Norfolk Yeoman. Led Common rebellion.
Support 16, 000
Causes Enclosures (main cause)

Somerset’s commission – alienated the Gentry, Isolated himself &encouraged the commons.

Bad Local government – JPs allowing Gentry to abuse position and power.

Actions of Landlords – engrossing, rack-renting, foldcourse

Social & Economic problems – unemployment, inflation,

Religious causes – resentment against the dissolution of the monasteries; those in poverty were no longer able to access support.

Aims/Motives/ Demands 29 articles.

*         To stop enclosure

*         To improve social and economic problems.

*         To gain better government

*         To stop the corruption of local gentry

*         Concern over the education of the clergy.

Key Events/ Outcomes 10-12 July – Rebels camp at Mousehold heath

14-15 July – Other rebels form at Downham Market and Ipswich

21 July – government pardon offered in return for dispersal

22 July – rebels take over Norwich

30 July Royal Army led by William Parr arrives at Norwich and offers a pardon

31 July – Rebels overrun Norwich again

8 August – France declares war on England

23 August – Royal army arrives under Warwick

24 August Earl of Warwick enters Norwich

26 August – Arrival of additional 1000 Mercenaries; rebels supply lines cut; rebels move to Dussindale

27 August – Rebels defeated at Dussindale

7 December – Kett hanged.

Kett raises a large force (16,000 men), caims Norwich but the rebellion is crushed by Warwick. Kett and 300 rebels were executed (sign of how frightened the government were). Somerset falls from power.

Somerset’s mistakes/ Successes Mistakes

Slow government response.

Northampton’s response.

Sending mixed messages and encouragement to the Rebels


Warwick’s response

Rebel mistakes/successes Mistakes

Moving to Dussindale

Kett was not a military man


Remain peaceful

Threat to Somerset’s Government Threat

Well organized.

Largest rising

Weak government response

Rebels were powerful

Weak government because Edward was a minor.

No threat.

Wasn’t directed at the king.

Lacked gentry and noble support.


Did not coordinate with the Western Rebels

3.4 Lincolnshire Rising, Pilgrimage of Grace and Bigod’s Uprising.

Hey guys! It’s been a while. Exams are looming on the horizon and now is the time most people are starting to revise. So here are *not-so-detailed* notes on the Lincolnshire Rising, Pilgrimage of Grace and Bigod’s Uprising – all the rebellions covered in this chapter. 

Lincolnshire Rising

Date,Duration October 1536
Leadership Nicholas Melton, Shoe-Maker; Vicar of Louth Church.
Support Monks from Lincolnshire abbeys’,Lincolnshire parish clergy,Some Gentry members,3000-10,000 rebels.
Causes Rapid and radical changes imposed by Henry VIII/Cromwell (1535-36)Triggered by presence of Gov. Commissioners overseeing dissolution.
Aims/Motives Set of Demands using Language to make it clear they weren’t rebelling against Henry but blamed his “evil counsellors” who “misled” the king.Article complained about 1534 subsidy & inability of the Lincolnshire men to pay. Reflects why both Gentry, Landlords and commons joined.
Key Events/ Outcomes
  • 2-3 Oct. – Attack on Government commissioners at Louth.
  • 4 Oct. – Lincolnshire gentry took leadership of the rebellion, murder of Dr Raynes (bishop of Lincoln).
  • 8 Oct. – Lord Hussey flees Lincolnshire, rebels march to Lincoln.9 Oct. – Petition drawn up. Grievances over Dissolution, “evil counsel”.
  • 10 Oct. – Royal army under the Duke of Suffolk reaches Stamford; Beginning of rebellion in the East and West Ridings of Yorkshire.
  • 11 Oct. Lincolnshire commons persuaded to go home by the Suffolk’s representatives; North Riding of Yorkshire rises in revolt.
Henry’s Mistakes/Successes (m) Local Nobility (Hussey & Clinton) fled. Henry’s defence.

(s) Swiftly putting down rebellion.

(m) Lulled into false security after putting the rising down. Disbanded the royal army and sent Suffolk to deal with it himself.

Rebel mistakes/successes (m) Rebel organization – didn’t delay to wait for the Yorkshire rebels. (s) Rebel Organization – their level of organization posed a threat.(m) Gentry quick to back down when threatened with punishment.
Threat to Henry’s Government
  • Gentry became involved.
  • Gathered momentum quickly. Gained
  • Involvement of Clergy and monks – church helped Tudors keep control & reinforced ideas of obedience.
  • More serious had the rebels from Lincolnshire & Pilgrimage of Grace coordinated.
  • Organization of the rebels.



Pilgrimage of Grace

Date,Duration October 1536-Feb 1537
Leadership Landowners – Sir Robert Aske
Support 30,000 rebels.Well trained fighters from Military.  No local nobility tried to supress the rebellion.  Nobility
  • Religious Change – Fear of Dissolutions which provided local charity.Ø 
  • Fear of New taxes – Cromwell’s subsidy Act authorised the collection of £80, 000.Ø 
  • Hardships – Poor Harvest in the previous year. Enclosure. High rents.
  • Dissolution of the Monasteries. Religious reform. Rebels feared social and economic consequences.Ø 
  • Pontefract Articles revealed wider hardships faced such s enclosure and rack renting.Ø 
  • Clergy views were reflected in articles about attack on traditional privileges ie. Benefit of the clergy.Ø 
  • Majority of rebel complaints were religious.
Key Events/ Outcomes
  • 10 Oct. – rebellions begin in East Riding, Yorkshire.
  • 19 Oct. – Henry VIII disbands army gathered in Bedfordshire.Ø 
  • 21 Oct. – Rebels besiege Skipton Castle. Lord Darcy surrenders Pontefract Castle & joins rebels.Ø 
  • 23-24 Oct. – Norfolk and his army reach Newark-on-Trent. Negotiations begin.Ø 
  • 27 Oct. – Representatives present their petition.Ø 
  • 2-18 Nov. – Petition presented in London to King. Offered more negotiations.Ø 
  • 21 Nov. – Rebel council met at York to discuss offer.Ø 
  • 2-4 Dec. – Pontefract articles drawn up. 24 Articles.Ø 
  • 6 Dec. – Norfolk and rebels meet.Ø 
  • 8 Dec. – King’s pardon published. Rebels disperse.
Henry’s Mistakes/Successes (m) Henry’s resources were stretched thing because: Duke of Suffolk restoring order in Lincolnshire, sent 2nd army home.Ø  (m) Errors meant it took 3 weeks to prepare a strategy.
Rebel mistakes/successes  (s) Peaceful rebellion.

(m) Aske taking Henry’s word and disbanding rebels.

Threat to Henry’s Government
  • High.
  • 50, 000 rebels (across England incl. Lincolnshire).
  • Gentry’s involvement and organization.
  • Organization And obedience meant rebellion was harder to put down.
  • However,Risings were not co-ordinated or simultaneousØ  No intention to overthrow the king.
  • Bush – “Rising of the commons” – stressed manifestoes were issued with “Common consent”.
  • Debate about extent which it was genuine popular anger, or to which grievances of clergy were imposed. Bush = genuine anger.


Bigod’s Rising, 1537

Date,Duration January-February 1537
Leadership Sir Francis Bigod
Support Few hundred support
  • Local grievances over landholding.
  • Feared the Kinds pardon was to get the rebels to disperse.
Key Events
  1. Bigod planned to capture Scarborough and Hill.
  2. Bigod was captured in Cumberland in February
  3.  In Yorkshire, Westmorland and Cumberland commons feared gentry would turn on them. Rebels attacked Carlisle but put down
  •  Aske and Bigod were arrested, convicted of treason and hanged.
  •  50 Lincolnshire rebels and 130 Northern Rebels were executed.
  • Rebellion remained entirely northern with some sympathies in the south.
Henry’s Mistakes/Successes Secured loyalty and obedience through threat of punishment/arrest (Gentry turned on the Commons)
Rebel mistakes/successes Bigod’s uprising was a reason for Henry to punish those who had rebelled previously and re-establish loyalty from and power over the gentry/nobility.
Threat to Henry’s Government Very little threat. Whilst it had potential the swiftness of the suppression and the lack of support failed to prove as a significant threat.


Did the rebellion pose a threat to Henry’s government?


Not a threat

  • Support – Gained around 30, 000 support across North England. Support included Gentry, Nobility and members of the church.  
  • Resources – Henry didn’t have the resources to put down the rebellion.  Henry had 8000. Rebellion had 30,000.
  • Organization the organization of the rebels meant they were harder to put down. The speed of the rebellion also took the Crown by surprise.
  •  Weakness – Henry was unable to quickly put down the rebellion, lack of resources also meant it took longer to strategize.
  • Aims – Restoration of Monasteries possible threat to Henry’s power and demonstrated unpopularity.
  •  Loyal – Threat to Cromwell and Richard Rich, not Henry. “Loyal Rebellion”. Pontefract Articles support this. Rebels were trying to change his decisions.Ø  Elton: Not to overthrow the king.
  • Peaceful – Aske encouraged use of “pilgrimage” (spiritual) to convey this and negotiations in Doncaster.Regionalised – Only popular in the North and risings weren’t coordinated.
  • Organization – the incoordination between Lincoln and Grace meant Henry was able to deal with both effectively.  


How to write an A-Level History Essay: To what extent…./How far….

Hiya guys! 

So this is my new series of posts helping you write the best essays you can. Whether you hate History or are aiming for an A* and to continue doing this at university, going into an exam knowing exactly HOW to write the entire exam (because it’s all essay unfortunately) will help you secure the grade you want. 

So! There are different types of questions you can be given but the most common one (for an non-source question) will probably begin with “to what extent” i.e. “to what extent do bananas increase a monkey’s hyperactive and crazy behaviour {20 marks}” or more seriously (and topic related) “To what extent do you agree that the introduction of the statue of artificers was the most significant improvement to the government of the localities in the year 1485-1603?”

This type of structure applies to “how far” questions as well. 

So, here we go: 

Like I said in my previous post, the introduction can be argued to be the most important aspect of an essay (to what extent do you agree that the introduction of an essay is the most important part of an essay…. 🙂 ) 

WARNING: Long post 🙂 


  • Outline the argument of the question. (1-2 lines)
  • Context (2-3 lines)
  • Criteria (2-3 lines)
  • Other significant factors (2-3 lines)

Paragraph 1: Point in the question

  • Re-phrase the question to answer whether or not the point included in the title was the most significant (1 line).
  • Explain briefly what/when it was (1-2 lines)
  • Evidence (1-2 lines)
  • Analyse by considering the criteria outlined in the introduction. (5-6 lines)
  • Judgement and link back to question (1-2 lines)

So this paragraph should always be about the factor included in the question, regardless if you agree that it’s the most significant/important. 


Paragraph 2-4: Most important point after one in the question

  • Re-phrase the question to answer whether or not the point included in the title was the most significant (1 line).
  • Explain briefly what/when it was (1-2 lines)
  • Evidence (1-2 lines)
  • Analyse by considering the criteria outlined in the introduction i.e. successes/failures (5-6 lines)
  • Judgement/comparison to PIQ and link back to question (1-2 lines)

This paragraph should be about either the second most important OR the factor/event you think is most significant/important if it isn’t the factor included in the question. Don’t be afraid to argue this! One of the best reasons about History is there is no wrong answer to some extent (to what extent is there no wrong answer in history…okay I will stop 😉 ) but seriously, if you can back your point up with evidence and clear reasoning then you’ve got yourself a good essay. 


  • Answer the question (1 line)
  • Summarize [analysis/explanation] using criteria (1-2 lines)
  • Summarize significance of key points using criteria (3-5 lines)
  • Extent you think statement is true using criteria: “To a certain extent” “to a great extent” “To a minor extent”

That’s it! It’s a lot, I know. But don’t worry the more you practice, the better you will become.  Quickly, some  extra help for the exam:

  • aim for 4 points – better to have 4 well thought out, well analysed points that 7 hastily written and kinda sucky ones 
  • Prioritize the conclusion – if you’re running out of time and you’re not on your conclusion, move to your conclusion. It’s better to have a conclusion and a half written point than a point and no conclusion. Even if this means leaving a few lines to go back to, prioritize your conclusion.
  • Plan, Plan, PLAN – I don’t think I can stress this enough. Spending 5 minutes outlining your points, jotting down a few notes on evidence, analysis on links will save you time later in the exam but also stop you from straying from what the question is asking you. I know in an exam you want to start writing ASAP but taking a breather, finding where you stand can ensure you have SUSTAINED judgement all the way through (something examiners are looking for). And the more you practise the quicker you will be. It now takes me approximately 3 minutes to plan my answers in an exam.
  • Timings – finally, before I do anything in my exams I mark out next to each question when I need to stop and start the next question (I even mark out planning time). So it looks kinda like: Question 1: start plan: 9, start writing: 9:05, finish writing: 9:45. And begin process again. 

Anyway! Hope this helps guys, have a nice evening and I hope your mocks go well 🙂

Best Wishes, 

History A2 xx

How to write an A-Level History Essay

Hi guys! So I haven’t updated in a while and the way I have structured my revision means I may not for a little while longer. So in my free time I have decided to write a some posts that will hopefully help you all during your studies. 

How to write an essay. 

A-Level history is a lot more demanding than GCSE and to get high grades you have to be able to write a good essay. Effectively (and from personal experience), this means there are four things to a good essay: 

  1. Knowledge. This one is pretty basic, at the end of the day, you need to know your stuff. You won’t be penalized because you spelt “transformismo” wrong but not knowing when the second world war started (1939 – in case you weren’t sure 😉 ) that might effect how the examiner percieves your essay. 
  2. Structure. Your essay needs to flow, not just in the fluency of your language (so 1  complex sentence instead of 3 simple sentence) but also your points. You need an introduction and a conclusion, but between these your points need to flow between each other, try and find links between points and use that as a basis to your plan . In terms of individual paragraph structure, PECAL is the best way to do it. Point, Evidence,Context (I’ve added this, teachers have always told me to add context or a breif explanation about your point and evidence), Analysis, Link (back to the question). Sticking to this ensure you cover everything you need for a good essay. I will cover this in more detail in later posts.
  3. Analysis – So you’ve P-ed – you’ve crafted the perfect topic sentence to tell the examiner your point, you’ve explained (context) and got some evidence in there. That’s great, that’s your knowledge. Check. A* GCSE, C A-Level. TO get a higher mark at A-Level you need to Analyse. Why? So what? Why was the SA a key reason Hitler came to power? So what effect did the Role of the king have in Mussolini becoming Prime Minister? Why is that important? Your analysis is key. For a personal example, In my most recent mocks, December 2016, I achieved full marks in my Tudor essays in terms of Knowledge (yay!) but barely any for analysis (*sad face*) resulting in 12/20 and 13/20 marks and an overall C grade – honestly, was shocked and upset. But now, I know the importance of analysis.
  4. Introduction and Conclusion. I originally wasn’t going to include this but a lot of people overlook the importance of both of these. These two paragraphs will set and complete your essay. Examiners will often predict and make those vital assumptions on how the rest of your essay will be based on your introduction. Frankly, if your intro sucks they will take that sucky feeling with them whilst reading the rest. I don’t want to scare you! I will write another posts specifically for introductions. But never overlook the intro. Same with the conclusion. In an exam where your judgement and analysis is very important, the conclusion, where you are summing up your judgement and analysis is the last thing the examiner will read before giving your mark. You want them to know your opinion, know your reasons and know WHY. Again, we will cover this in a later post. 

So, there are the four basics for a good essay. 

I think I will do posts for different types of A-Level essay questions so if you have a style that I don’t cover, drop a comment and I’ll hop right on it. 

I hope this helps, please leave a comment if you need any help. 

Thanks guys, have a great day!

HistoryA2 xx



As you can probably tell, I am not going in any particular order with my revision, which I should probably do but I have mocks and stuff so….

This section will cover the 1st part of the question: 


1. Unification:

  • Having only become fully unified in 1870, political leaders struggled to create a national identity and shared patriotism as people were used to identifying as part of their town or region as  Italy had been fragmented politically, economically and culturally since the Middle Ages causing campanilismo
  • 99% of Italians spoke regional dialects only understandable in their region. ‘Italian’ was the Florence dialect – only people from Florence and educated classes could understand. King Victor Emmanuel II = Piedmont dialect. Risorgimento – ‘Resurgence/Rebirth’ to reunite Italy under one ruler.
  • Political and Economical turmoil (particularly Anarchism) threatened to separate the nation. 

2. Italy’s Political System:

  • Protests – In May 1989 against the political system and growing economic problems – met with brutal Government crackdown killing 100 in Milan. In 1900 July 29, King Umberto I was assassinated by an anarchist who wanted to avenge the deaths. 
  • Politicians – Mainly Northern, middle class and represented own ideas at the expense of the population, same liberal ideologies. 
  • Political development hindered by Catholics – Angered by Roman Question; refused to accept Italian state; Pope Leo XIII forbade the Catholics from participating politically; Politicians feared challenging the church as it would further alienate the population (predominately Catholic). Stopped the formation of a National party with Catholic values = no parliamentary challenge.
  • Limited Suffrage – less than 25% of men had the vote. Population majority were disenfranchised and illiterate. 
  • Frequent government change – Governments were formed by prominent politicians offering positions as deputies to other parliament members = frequent changes in government when deputies were offered a better position.
  • Division –  Legislation rarely improved lives of population, population considered politically uneducated, protest met with violent repression – this elite attitude emphasized divide between ‘real Italy’ and ‘legal Italy’. The inability to voice anger led to support for extremist revolutionary ideologies i.e anarchism. 

3. Economic growth and Social Problem:

  • Industrialization: Accentuated serious problems. 
  • Economic – 1899-1914, Italy expanded both economically and industrially (focused in North), industries such as chemical, mechanical, electrical, iron, steel and car grew significantly (car= great success). Industrialization increased agricultural production.
  • Social – living standard remained low. Unemployment, food shortages, high taxes and protests about them were common across Italy. 
  • North/South Divide – Wealthy North/impoverished South – greatest barrier of Unification. 

4. North-South Divide – Questione Meridionale – Southern Question”

  • Economic – Southern Intellectuals called for economic investment but by 1911 situation worsened with economic focus on Northern Cities (industrial triangle – Milan, Turin, Genoa), the south became agriculturally stagnated. In 1911, census showed half of Italy’s 2.2 million industrial workers were employed in Northern provinces of the Industrial triangle and income per head was twice in the north than in the south.
  • Social – Italy’s politicians ignored the major issues – impoverished, suffered from poor diet, malnutrition, high infant mortality,  lack of clean drinking water, tuberculosis and malaria. (1910-11, 25,000 died from Cholera epidemic). More than 50% = illiterate.
  • Attempts to ‘solve’ Questione Meridionale – failed to make any noticeable improvements to living standards through policies such as encouraging southern industrial investment. Only way to alleviate pressure was emigration and millions of Italians immigrated to mainly America (240,000 between 1901-1913 (20, 000 per year)) – helped lessen economic strain, did not deal with the long term issues and became reliant on other countries.  

(was going to leave it here but I only have one point left so sorry for the long post but here is our last point!)

5. Least of Europe’s great powers: 

  • Behind  – Italy’s industrial development was behind Britain and Germany. 
  • Foreign Policy – Focus on Irredentism and reclamation of South Tyrol and Istria (high Italian speaking population) from Austro-Hungarian Empire, Italy did not have the military or diplomatic means to do this o it looked to African colonization. First focused on Tunisia but the French  (diplomatically supported by UK) invaded 1881 (angered Government) resulting in the signing of the defensive alliance with Austria and Germany “Triple Alliance” (angered Italians, Austria = traditional enemy).
  • Geographical Disadvantage – Britain and France navies dominated Mediterranean. 
  • British Support – Britain agreed to the Italian expansion into Abyssinia in 1884 but attempts failed (Battle of Dogali – forces where defeated by Ethiopian army and 500 Italians died). Further attempts 1894 and on-wards (Battle of Adwa, March 1 1896, 5000 killed, thousands injured from the Abyssinia’s army). Prime Minister Francesco Crispi hoped colonization would unite Italians with patriotic pride but instead humiliation accentuated growing anger political system and was a catalyst for mass protest and riots. 

Whoooooooooa…. that was a lot! Sorry for the information bomb… 

There are a lot of Key Terms which I have done in bold, I will do a separate post with all these key terms and full explanations which I have hyperlinked here as well as on the words 🙂

Best Wishes, 

HistoryA2 xoxo

Italy Key Terms: 2.1

So here is a big ol’ list of the key terms in the first section of Italy (2.1). This list will be added to as I upload posts relating to the Chapter.

  • Risorgimento – ‘Resurgence’ or ‘rebirth’ and refers to the unification of Italy which had concluded with the incorporation of Rome in 1870 an creation as a new nation with Rome as it’s capital, been split since the Middle Ages by a variety of powers such as Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Pope, French-Spanish Bourbon royal family, politicians who led Risorgimento struggled to show the vision of an nation they fought to create. 
  • Anarchism – Political ideology that believes he violent overthrow of state authority and control and the establishment of a self-governing  order, people live without government or rules
  • Campanilismo – feeling of pride and belonging to birth place, stronger than a national identity.
  • Roman Question – Term to describe the split between the Italian State and Catholic Church. The Pope argued the Papal states had been annexed by an invading forces and the return of his temporal power (territorial power) was necessary to ensure independence as God’s representative. 
  • Meridionale – Term used to refer to the South. 
  • Irredentism – movement that grew from unification and gained popularity in the late 19th/early 20th century – the successful unification in 1870 should continue till all Italian speaking areas are incorporated into Italy (similar to the German Anschluss). 


This section will cover the 2nd part of the 1.5 Question:


The effect of the First World War on Nazi Foreign policy?

The end of the First World War = bad beginning for peace and new government:

  • overthrow and abdication of German Kaiser 
  • Creation of new government
  • Armistice – many were misinformed about losing the war, believed Germany could have won. Treaty of Versailles = Dolschtoss ‘Stab in the Back’ by the November Criminals. 

Weimar started under a cloud of unpopularity and protest against the signing of ToV – which Germany had been forced to accept with no influence over it’s terms. Army had privately advised the Gov that Germany couldn’t win, but members of both (Army and Gov) publicly said otherwise, causing resentment. 

Hitler and the Nazi Party: 

  • in Mein Kampf (My struggle) he outlined his political theories, his experiences as a solider in WW1 and how he felt when he heard about the AAC (Abdication, Armistice, Creation of Weimar) – he raged against politicians who had betrayed Germany. 
  • Joined a small right-wing party – DAP (Deutsche Arbeitserpartei) Which changed to the NSDAP (Nationalsozialitische Deutsche Arbeitserpartei – NSDAP). Hitler was one of the leaders. The 25 Point Programme had many ideas about race and German expansion – like those in Mein Kampf. 
  • Disillusioned Soliders joined Paramilitary groups. Between 1919-1923 – 376 political murders mostly committed by Right Wing paramilitary groups. 2 attempts to overthrow the government: Kapp Putsch 1920 and Munich Putsch 1923. Both attempts failed but showed the Governments weakness and lacked support. 
  • Failure taught Hitler of the problems with using violence without support or enough force. In prison he wrote Mein Kampf and decided his next takeover would be political. 

Terms of Versailles

  • Resented by almost everyone in Germany and even some Allies. 
  • ‘Big Three’ contributed most: France(suffered most) pushed for severest measures due to fear of another war and it’s proximity to Germany; British Gov promised British public severe measures but didn’t want to push a treaty that would cause resentment. USA pushed for most reasonable treaty and the creation of an international organisation to promote international harmony. 
  • Terms: 
    • Germany lost land  – Danzig&Polish Corridor more bitterly resented, but 6.4 mil Germans were outside new borders
    • German told to disarm (main cause of resentment) – no submarines/heavy warships/tanks/airforce. 100,000 troops must stay in Germany. 
    • German army could not enter Rhineland – deilitarized buffer zone between France and Germany.
    • Germany had to pay reparations – 132 million gold marks in 1921. 
    • Germany signed Article 231 – War Guilt Clause – responsible for starting the war and not accepted as an equal power (Main Cause of Resentment)
    • Diktat – dictated peace, Germany had no say.

Effect of ToV

  • Laid foundations for WW2 by it’s effects on Germany and other countries. Reichstag privately agreed the terms did not have to be obeyed .
  • Politicians protested openly and foreign ministers worked for change, worked secretly to break the terms i.e. disarmament.
  • Secret arrangements made with USSR allowing German armaments on Soviet soil by soviet companies. 1926 – Russian Tank training in Kazan began to train German soldiers, by 1928 tanks were being made and tested in Russia.
  • Some army members felt that the government was no longer legal and the army was the only thing left of a legitimate government.

ToV and Nazi Foreign Policy 

  • ToV affected Foreign Policy because opposing it made any political party popular. Problems could be blamed on ToV i.e. Economic disruption in Europe which added to Germany’s problems with reparations. All countries had difficulty trading – furthering Germany’s struggle.
  • Political disruption — Small, self-determining states created by the Treaty were weak with ethnic divisions (many with large German populations) that made governing the difficult. Disagreements over borders. Unintended Consequence = targets for USSR, Germany, Italy and Poland. 
  • Some Allies saw the treaty as too harsh: UK Prime Minister (Lloyd George) made it clear he felt treaty was so unfair there would be another war in 25 years time. French said the same (despite their harsh demands). 
  • Many Nations wanted peace which affected their response to the breaking of the ToV terms. I.e. Britain and France = Appeasement. Britain signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement with the Nazi Government setting naval sizes that broke Versailles. 
  • Germany was restoring the losses of the ‘unfair’ terms and other nations seemed to accept this, further prompting the Nazis to expand Germany and build a stronger military force. 


I know, really strange place to start but this is what my mock is on so, deal with it 😀

This section will cover the 1.5 Question:


Hitler had 3 main strands of his historical view:

  • Largely fictional ‘racial History’
  • Nostalgia for earlier empires & land and power were Germany’s right.
  • First World War and the Treaty of Versailles.

How Did Aryan Racial Theory Nazi Foreign Policy? 

  • Aryan = superior race over all other races. Included ethnic groups: Black, Asians, Russian and Eastern European Slavs and especially Jews. This also included: gypsies and the disabled.
  • True Germans were Aryans, thought other Northern European Countries (Including Britain) had Aryan Roots. Favoured diplomatic alliances with these ‘acceptable’ countries.  Aryan Empire = Pan Germanism
  • Favoured German Expansion eastwards, taking land from those socially inferior. Still made alliances with inferior countries for temporary advantage.

Why the Third Reich?

  • Germany returned to rightful power. Nazis were not revisionists (like Weimar) – wanted to overturn Versailles and expand to secure more land than German had in 1914.
  • Focus on: The First Reich (Charlemagne, Holy Roman Empire 800-1806) and the Second Reich (founded by Otto von Bismarck after Prussia defeated France, 1871, by 1914 it was falling apart) – both empires gained land, keeping it by war and military strength. Worked Hard diplomatically for acceptance. 
  • Nazi Propaganda focused on the glory of these empires and influenced Hitler, especially in his earlier years as he stressed his desire for peace. 
  • Reminiscing the earlier empires gave them cred(ibility) and appealing to Nationalist Germans and those who wanted History. Stressed they were ‘restoring’ and ‘continuing’ a great Germany. 
  • Propaganda postcards showed: Frederick the Great (ruler of Prussia, 1740-86), Bismarck, Hindenburg and Hitler facing one direction. “What the King conquered, the Prince formed, the Field Marshall defended and the solider saved and unified” (See Featured Picture)