Hi guys! So I haven’t updated in a while and the way I have structured my revision means I may not for a little while longer. So in my free time I have decided to write a some posts that will hopefully help you all during your studies.
How to write an essay.
A-Level history is a lot more demanding than GCSE and to get high grades you have to be able to write a good essay. Effectively (and from personal experience), this means there are four things to a good essay:
- Knowledge. This one is pretty basic, at the end of the day, you need to know your stuff. You won’t be penalized because you spelt “transformismo” wrong but not knowing when the second world war started (1939 – in case you weren’t sure 😉 ) that might effect how the examiner percieves your essay.
- Structure. Your essay needs to flow, not just in the fluency of your language (so 1 complex sentence instead of 3 simple sentence) but also your points. You need an introduction and a conclusion, but between these your points need to flow between each other, try and find links between points and use that as a basis to your plan . In terms of individual paragraph structure, PECAL is the best way to do it. Point, Evidence,Context (I’ve added this, teachers have always told me to add context or a breif explanation about your point and evidence), Analysis, Link (back to the question). Sticking to this ensure you cover everything you need for a good essay. I will cover this in more detail in later posts.
- Analysis – So you’ve P-ed – you’ve crafted the perfect topic sentence to tell the examiner your point, you’ve explained (context) and got some evidence in there. That’s great, that’s your knowledge. Check. A* GCSE, C A-Level. TO get a higher mark at A-Level you need to Analyse. Why? So what? Why was the SA a key reason Hitler came to power? So what effect did the Role of the king have in Mussolini becoming Prime Minister? Why is that important? Your analysis is key. For a personal example, In my most recent mocks, December 2016, I achieved full marks in my Tudor essays in terms of Knowledge (yay!) but barely any for analysis (*sad face*) resulting in 12/20 and 13/20 marks and an overall C grade – honestly, was shocked and upset. But now, I know the importance of analysis.
- Introduction and Conclusion. I originally wasn’t going to include this but a lot of people overlook the importance of both of these. These two paragraphs will set and complete your essay. Examiners will often predict and make those vital assumptions on how the rest of your essay will be based on your introduction. Frankly, if your intro sucks they will take that sucky feeling with them whilst reading the rest. I don’t want to scare you! I will write another posts specifically for introductions. But never overlook the intro. Same with the conclusion. In an exam where your judgement and analysis is very important, the conclusion, where you are summing up your judgement and analysis is the last thing the examiner will read before giving your mark. You want them to know your opinion, know your reasons and know WHY. Again, we will cover this in a later post.
So, there are the four basics for a good essay.
I think I will do posts for different types of A-Level essay questions so if you have a style that I don’t cover, drop a comment and I’ll hop right on it.
I hope this helps, please leave a comment if you need any help.
Thanks guys, have a great day!
So here is a big ol’ list of the key terms in the first section of Italy (2.1). This list will be added to as I upload posts relating to the Chapter.
- Risorgimento – ‘Resurgence’ or ‘rebirth’ and refers to the unification of Italy which had concluded with the incorporation of Rome in 1870 an creation as a new nation with Rome as it’s capital, been split since the Middle Ages by a variety of powers such as Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Pope, French-Spanish Bourbon royal family, politicians who led Risorgimento struggled to show the vision of an nation they fought to create.
- Anarchism – Political ideology that believes he violent overthrow of state authority and control and the establishment of a self-governing order, people live without government or rules
- Campanilismo – feeling of pride and belonging to birth place, stronger than a national identity.
- Roman Question – Term to describe the split between the Italian State and Catholic Church. The Pope argued the Papal states had been annexed by an invading forces and the return of his temporal power (territorial power) was necessary to ensure independence as God’s representative.
- Meridionale – Term used to refer to the South.
- Irredentism – movement that grew from unification and gained popularity in the late 19th/early 20th century – the successful unification in 1870 should continue till all Italian speaking areas are incorporated into Italy (similar to the German Anschluss).
I know, really strange place to start but this is what my mock is on so, deal with it 😀
This section will cover the 1.5 Question:
HOW FAR DID GERMAN HISTORY INFLUENCE NAZI FOREIGN POLICY:
Hitler had 3 main strands of his historical view:
- Largely fictional ‘racial History’
- Nostalgia for earlier empires & land and power were Germany’s right.
- First World War and the Treaty of Versailles.
How Did Aryan Racial Theory Nazi Foreign Policy?
- Aryan = superior race over all other races. Included ethnic groups: Black, Asians, Russian and Eastern European Slavs and especially Jews. This also included: gypsies and the disabled.
- True Germans were Aryans, thought other Northern European Countries (Including Britain) had Aryan Roots. Favoured diplomatic alliances with these ‘acceptable’ countries. Aryan Empire = Pan Germanism
- Favoured German Expansion eastwards, taking land from those socially inferior. Still made alliances with inferior countries for temporary advantage.
Why the Third Reich?
- Germany returned to rightful power. Nazis were not revisionists (like Weimar) – wanted to overturn Versailles and expand to secure more land than German had in 1914.
- Focus on: The First Reich (Charlemagne, Holy Roman Empire 800-1806) and the Second Reich (founded by Otto von Bismarck after Prussia defeated France, 1871, by 1914 it was falling apart) – both empires gained land, keeping it by war and military strength. Worked Hard diplomatically for acceptance.
- Nazi Propaganda focused on the glory of these empires and influenced Hitler, especially in his earlier years as he stressed his desire for peace.
- Reminiscing the earlier empires gave them cred(ibility) and appealing to Nationalist Germans and those who wanted History. Stressed they were ‘restoring’ and ‘continuing’ a great Germany.
- Propaganda postcards showed: Frederick the Great (ruler of Prussia, 1740-86), Bismarck, Hindenburg and Hitler facing one direction. “What the King conquered, the Prince formed, the Field Marshall defended and the solider saved and unified” (See Featured Picture)